3D Interaction

In computing, 3D interaction is a form of human-machine interaction where users are able to move and perform interaction in 3D space. Both human and machine process information where the physical position of elements in the 3D space is relevant.

The 3D space used for interaction can be the real physical space, a virtual space representation simulated in the computer, or a combination of both. When the real space is used for data input, humans perform actions or give commands to the machine using an input device that detects the 3D position of the human action. When it’s used for data output, the simulated 3D virtual scene is projected onto the real environment through one output device or a combination of them.”

I would like to present some of the techniques used for 3D interaction Applications.

3D interaction techniques:

3D interaction techniques are methods used in order to execute different types of task in 3D space. Techniques are classified according to the tasks that
they support.

Selection and manipulation
Users need to be able to manipulate virtual objects. Manipulation tasks involve selecting and moving an object. Sometimes, rotation of the object is
involved as well. Direct-hand manipulation is the most natural technique because manipulating physical objects with the hand is intuitive for humans.
However, this is not always possible. A virtual hand that can select and re-locate virtual objects will work as well.
3D widgets can be used to put controls on objects: these are usually called 3D Gizmos or Manipulators (a good example are the ones from Blender). Users can
employ these to re-locate, re-scale or re-orient an object (Translate, Scale, Rotate).
Other techniques include the Go-Go technique and ray casting, where a virtual ray is used to point to, and select and object. More recently there has been
user interface development and research by Richard White in Kansas over the past 3 years regarding interactive surfaces & classroom interactive whiteboards,
grade school students, and 3D natural user interfaces known as Edusim.

The computer needs to provide the user with information regarding location and movement. Navigation tasks have two components. Travel involves moving from
the current location to the desired point. Wayfinding refers to finding and setting routes to get to a travel goal within the virtual environment.
Wayfinding : Wayfinding in virtual space is different and more difficult to do than in the real world because synthetic environments are often missing
perceptual cues and movement constraints. It can be supported using user-centred techniques such as using a larger field of view and supplying motion cues,
or environment-centred techniques like structural organization and wayfinding principles.

Travel : Good travel techniques allow the user to easily move through the environment. There are three types of travel tasks namely, exploration, search,
and manoeuvring. Travel techniques can be classified into the following five categories:
Physical movement – user moves through the virtual world
Manual Viewpoint manipulation – use hand motions to achieve movement

Steering – direction specification
Target-based travel – destination specification
Route planning – path specification

System control
Tasks that involve issuing commands to the application in order to change system mode or activate some functionality fall under the category of system
control. Techniques that support system control tasks in three-dimensions are classified as:
Graphical menus
Voice commands
Gestural interaction
Virtual tools with specific functions

Symbolic input
This task allows the user to enter and/or edit, for example, text, making it possible to annotate 3D scenes or 3D objects.




Design Defects in cars, Major reasons for Road Accidents

Manufacturers are required by law to design and engineer cars that meet a minimum safety standard.  While advancements are being made every day to improve the safety and efficiency of automobiles on the road, problems with the design and functionality of the cars themselves — sometimes referred to as product liability — is one of the top causes of car accidents on the road.

Even with federal safety standards and extensive testing on every automobile manufactured, our car accident lawyers know there are a significant amount of defective cars on the road.

What Do Auto Makers Do About Design Defect?

Car manufacturers are usually faced with only two choices after discovering a poorly designed auto component:

  • Recall the defective part or car and fix it.
  • Pay off accident-related lawsuits as they arise.

Manufacturing defects can lead to very serious auto accidents.  As such, you should be aware of the typical design defects, as well as how to prevent a car accident.

Brake Failures Result In Major Car Accidents

Modern dual-circuit brake systems have made total brake failure an unlikely event. If one side of the brake circuit fails, the other side can sufficiently stop the car.  Disc brakes, found on the front wheels of nearly every car built today, are significantly more effective than older drum braking systems, which can fade when hot.

Anti Blockier System (ABS) or anti-lock brakes prevent the wheels from locking up during emergency braking maneuvers, allowing modern automobiles to avoid many car accidents that might have occurred in the past due to brake failure.

Defective Tires Can Cause Car Accidents

The radial tires manufactured today are significantly safer than the bias-ply tires produced 25 years ago. Problems can still occur, mainly due to air pressure or tire traction. Under-inflated tires are the top cause of tire blowouts.  Uneven or worn-out tires caused by improperly balanced tires and misaligned or broken suspensions can put any car on an unintended path that may cause a car accident.

Your tires keep you connected to the roadway.  If you do not know how to check your own tires then have a certified car mechanic check them every 5,000 miles.

Poor Steering & Suspension Can Lead To Car Accidents

Your suspension keeps your tires in contact with the roadway in a stable and predictable manner while the steering mechanisms enable you to go around road obstacles and avoid potential accidents. Even a safe, well-trained driver is helpless in the event of a steering or suspension system failure. To ensure your automobile is operating safely in terms of suspension and steering, have your vehicle checked out by a mechanic every 10,000 miles.

Link : http://seriousaccidents.com/legal-advice/top-causes-of-car-accidents/manufacturing-and-design-defects/

The importance of design

 Welcome to the Loft’s weekly news

Well we would say that, wouldnt we? We are a design company. In my two and a half years in business, I have met marketing people, lawyers, accountants, HR people, branding experts, IT people etc, etc. Each of whom generally tend to say that the service that they offer is fundamental to a company’s success. Each and every one of them can justifiably say so. It is important that a company’s promotional materials look good, that they offer the correct customer service, that they are on top of the financial aspects. Well I would argue that they are all important. But I firmly believe that the intellectual facet of design is central to any business’s success.

Design is not about making your business cards look pretty. Real design is about so much more, it is about generating ideas. Ideas that will make products or services better for people, be it in terms of function, performance or aesthetics. These ideas will propel a company forward and inspire those in the organisation. Marketing and brand communication are all important but mere exponents of this creativity. The companies that truly succeed today have real design at the heart of their operations.

“Design is the fundamental soul of a man made creation”

It was Steve Jobs, legendary CEO of Apple who said this. Apple, the most succesful technology company in the world.

The reason I believe design is so fundamental to a company’s success is that designers are driven by passion. They are dreamers and have a vision for a better world – be it a prettier one or a more resourceful one or a greener one. Their passions and motives are about more than the company’s short term bottom line, it is about doing great things. And this vision or this ability to narrate is not the sole propriety of designers, it can be led by anyone. The term ‘designer’ per se can be as easily applicable to a company’s CEO as it can to the head of the graphic design division. It is just that this creative spirit is a more natural fit for designers.

It is these people of vision that endow a company with a culture. All great companies have cultures, they are living entities that stand for something. The reason design is so important is that once a company understands what its about, it can then creatively build its culture outwardly from this. This is what is meant when we speak of ‘strength of the brand,’ this is not a discussion of aesthetics but a more intellectual argument. Indeed, once the truth has been established, a context understood, a narrative developed. Companies can then use this narrative in every part of their business. It can shape every aspect of their development.

It is very easy for designers to speak about Apple or Audi when speaking about great design led companies. But I am going to use the example of ‘Innocent’ drinks. This is a great company, they have a culture, a narrative. ‘Pure, fresh and unadulterated.’ Everything from the stories of the two entrepeneurs who created the company to the company website, to the way they sell their products to ‘Fruit Towers’ help build an incredibly strong company. It is this sense of being that is allowing them to easily expand into new product areas such as yoghurts and veg pots. They have an inherent and easily comprehensible vision. This vision shapes all parts of their business, what’s more, it allows Innocent to inspire their own staff. Getting the best out of human capital – possibly the most important aspect of any company’s success. There is no aspect of a company’s model that will not be enhanced by design, choosing which products to develop, how to innovate, how to select staff, how to train staff, how to market the products, how to sell them, which events to promote.

Great design is what drives just about every great company with a great culture, think about it… Ferrari, Audi, Apple, Facebook, Google, IKEA. Its a long list. More than just being visually effective. Design is about seeing the bigger picture. It is the heartbeat of any succesful company and I would recommend any company big or small to think carefully about their narratives as the world is changing so quickly and those with the weakest philosophical arguments are those in the biggest danger.

Reference: http://www.theloft.co/news/importance-of-real-design/